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Old 07-25-2011, 02:43 AM
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Default Making late 18th C. Chisels

Here are the first pictures of a prototype 18th century style pairing chisel I'm working on. The first picture is a Buck Brothers 1 1/4" wide pairing chisel that I'm basing my design on. The next two photos are layout on the steel stock. The red stuff is Dykem layout dye, it makes your scribe lines show up much better. The final photo is after a failed heat treating attempt, I just do not have enough energy in the torch I'm using to get this large piece of steel hot enough. I'll be at my parent's house later in the week (where I have a charcoal forge) to do the proper heat treat and tempering.
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making-late-18th-c-chisels-buck-bros.-1-1-4-paring   making-late-18th-c-chisels-pairing-chisel-layout.jpg   making-late-18th-c-chisels-pairing-chisel-tang-layout.jpg   making-late-18th-c-chisels-heated-1-1-4-paring-chisel.jpg  
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Old 07-25-2011, 03:00 AM
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Default Re: Making late 18th C. Chisels

Cool. How do you know when you've done the heat-treating properly?
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Old 07-25-2011, 03:30 AM
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Default Oops I mean Making late 19th C. Chisels

Poto, there are a number of ways. If I had a hardness tester, I would be able to give a rating on the rockwell scale, for my purposes (and probably what was done then) is a file test. If the quench (cooling) is fast enough and from the right temperature then the chisel will be very hard, harder than a file. If the file cuts you screwed up, normalize and do it again.
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Old 07-25-2011, 04:35 AM
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Default Re: Making late 18th C. Chisels

Normalize?
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Old 07-25-2011, 04:39 AM
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Default Re: Making late 18th C. Chisels

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Originally Posted by Poto View Post

Normalize?
Now there's a word you don't often see on this forum.

.
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Old 07-25-2011, 04:14 PM
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Default Re: Making late 18th C. Chisels

Normalize.

Quote:
Originally Posted by joraft View Post
Now there's a word you don't often see on this forum.

.
Temper, temper.


Trevor, are you sure that isn't a late 19th century Buck Bros. pattern?
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Old 07-26-2011, 12:13 AM
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Default Re: Making late 18th C. Chisels

Great start Trevor. You will no doubt develop fine chisels.
What alloy metal are you starting with and how are you cutting out the rough shape?
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Old 07-26-2011, 01:14 AM
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Default Re: Making late 18th C. Chisels

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Normalize.



Temper, temper.


Trevor, are you sure that isn't a late 19th century Buck Bros. pattern?
Hee hee
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Old 07-26-2011, 02:24 AM
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Default Re: Making late 18th C. Chisels

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Originally Posted by MichaelKellough View Post
Normalize.



Temper, temper.


Trevor, are you sure that isn't a late 19th century Buck Bros. pattern?
Good link to very interesting information on the Buck bros. Michael!
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Old 07-26-2011, 11:59 PM
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Default Re: Making late 19th C. Chisels

Michael, I knew someone was going to catch that. I do mean 19th C.

Normalize means to heat the steel above Critical (nonmagnetic) Temperature, then cool it slowly. Above Critical, the alloying elements (carbon, vanadium, molybdenum, chromium etc. depending on the steel) will dissolve into the iron evenly. The slow cooling allows the stresses to leave the steel and the molecular structure to reform.

The steel I'm using here is 1095. 10xx means it is a simple steel only iron and carbon, the last two digits are percentage of carbon by weight. 95 meaning .95% carbon. 1018 would be simple steel with .18% carbon. Other steels 4140 for example, 41xx is a code for a chromium/molybdenum steel. Basically this means that 4140 is an alloy steel with .40% carbon, the medium carbon content, coupled with the chrome/molly makes for a tough steel. 4140 is used for case hardened (only the skin of steel is hardened the inside is softer) for things like gears, crankshafts, arms etc.

I chose 1095 for this piece of plate a long time ago because I wanted a simple steel like older makers would have used. This just happened to be what I had on hand large enough for this chisel. I also use O1 for punches and W1 for blades. Both are also simple steels.

All the work thus far has been done with a hacksaw and files. It took an hour almost exactly to cut and file everything to shape.
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